Botanikai-Természetvédelmi Folyóirat

Journal of Pannonian Botany

Kitaibelia vol. 25 – no. 1. (2020) p.19-26.

A csókalábú útifű (Plantago coronopus) folytatódó térhódítása Magyarországon / Continuing spread of Plantago coronopus along Hungarian roads (DOI: 10.17542/kit.25.19)
SCHMIDT Dávid, BAUER Norbert, FEKETE Réka, HASZONITS Győző, SÜVEGES Kristóf & MOLNÁR V. Attila
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Kivonat:

Abstract – In the course of our research of Hungarian transport routes, we observed an intensive spread of the Atlantic-Mediterranean Plantago coronopus L., a recently established species in Hungary. Between 2017 and 2019, it was detected in 47 flora mapping quadrats, which increased the total number of occurrences to 81 since 2013. Besides motorways, the main Hungarian transport routes were involved as well. 26 occurrences have been recorded along the roads 4/E60, E573, 8/E66, 86/E65 and 87, which are severely affected by international traffic. However, on routes avoiding in­ter­na­tional transit traffic, the species’ occurrences are still rare. In some cases, the predominant direction of traffic appeared to influence the formation of new stands. It is very likely that the first individuals that appeared along the section of the M86/E65 motorway between Szombathely and Hegyfalu in 2019, arrived primarily by northbound traffic, rather than along the road 86, which runs parallel to it only a few hundred meters away. Likewise, it seems certain that the spread of the species along the roads M1/E60, E75 (Mocsa, Tata, Páty) and M7/E71 (Fonyód, Balatonlelle, Kajászó) as well as the road 8/E66 (Bakonygyepes, Veszprém) is due to reproduction of older extensive local po­pu­la­ti­ons. At several localities along the outer bend of roundabouts or near the exits of motorways, a dispersal role of intense winter road salting was also observed. The largest populations were located mostly along ditches, next to the (often bare) lane of roadbeds that are heavily affected by mechanical and osmotic stress. The majority of stands were found within a 3 meters wide belt along the asphalt strip (5 meters was measured in the lawn of a cemetery once). Since the species is present con­ti­nu­o­usly at several localities since 2013, it is considered as naturalised in Hungary, and its further spread can be con­fi­dent­ly predicted. The current status of the species in Hungary is naturalised (non-trans­former) neophyte.

Keywords: flora mapping, naturalization, road ecology, routes

Összefoglalás – Magyarországi úthálózat vizsgálata során az atlanti-mediterrán elterjedésű Plantago coronopus L. intenzív terjedését tapasztaltuk. 2017–2019 között a fajt újabb 47 flóratérképezési kvad­rát­ból mutattuk ki, amellyel 81-re nőtt előfordulásainak száma. Kimutattuk, hogy a gyorsforgalmi utak mellett a faj erős terjedése a főközlekedési utakat is elérte, ezen kívüli megjelenései egyelőre ritkák. Legnagyobb kiterjedésű és egyedsűrűségű állományai az útpadkák mechanikus és ozmotikus stressztől erősebben érintett (gyakran növényzetmentes) sávja mögötti részén találhatók, de néhány előfordulás ilyen helyeken kívül is ismert. 2013-tól ismert állományai közül több helyen ma is összefüggő tömeg­ben van jelen, így a faj egyértelműen meghonosodott (de nem átalakító) neofitonnak tekinthető.

Kulcsszavak: flóratérképezés, meghonosodás, úthálózat, útökológia