Botanikai-Természetvédelmi Folyóirat

Journal of Pannonian Botany

Kitaibelia vol. 5 – no. 1. (2000) p.9-16.

Az úszóláp-szukcesszió kérdései I.
Balogh Márton
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Questions related to the succession of floating bogs are summarised. During the formation of a floating bog from the macrophyton vegetation of the littoral zone two main stages can be distinguished. 1. Floating meadow formation. During this stage an aquatic community develops on water as a substrate (“bedrock”). 2. Floating bog formation. During this stage accumulation of litter and peat formation takes place. On this peat bedrock a community characteristic of bogs, a semi-terrestrial geomorphological formation develops.

The author describes another way for the formation of floating bogs: in this case the floating meadow develops not from the rhizomes of macrophytes in the littoral zone but from the downbending stalks. Plants which tend to exhibit such behaviour are Phragmites australis and especially Glyceria maxima.

The formation of floating bogs by bog mosses characteristic of northern territories is described based on literature data. In the light of these data it can be stated that the two successional stages known from the studies on floating bog development from littoral zone macrophytes – the floating meadow and floating bog formation stage–can be distinguished in this case as well.

The formation of floating bogs from tussock-land is described based on the author’s observations. In this type of bog development Carex rhizomes grow over from one tussock to the other, downfalling litter accumulates, and peat formation takes place on this resulting rhizome net. Vegetation characteristic of bogs settles on this floating peat mat, the tussock columns rot away from below and thus a floating bog has been formed.

Formation of floating bogs from plant debris and other special, rare developmental forms are discussed based on literature data.

The author outlines the role of floating bogs in the upfilling succession, considering this to be fundamental. The scientific opinion in Hungary is rejected. It is commonly stated that the sequence of the littoral zones is the same as the steps of the upfilling succession: the upfilling succession proceeding from the floating water weed through the rooted weed to the macrophyte communities on the water margin. The floating bog succession of the littoral zone macrophyton vegetation or the Sphagnum floating bog succession of northern oligotrophic, mesotrophic waters occurs even where the weed vegetation is very scarce.