Kitaibelia vol. 5 – no. 1. (2000) p.17-36.
Új távlatok a magyar lápkutatásban: Szukcessziókutatás paleobryológiai és pollenanalitikai módszerekkel
Jakab Gusztáv – Magyari Enikő
This paper provides a brief introduction to the recent methods of paleohydrology, macrofossil analysis and pollen analysis. The primary focus is on the method of paleobryology which is for the first time applied in Hungarian sediments as a quantitative analysis. The role of mire-forming moss species in the reconstruction of fossil wetland communities is discussed using both the indicator species and fossil moss assemblage approach. Case studies from two Hungarian peat bogs - "Nagy Mohos" (Kelemér, NE Hungary), "Báb-tava" (Csaroda, E Hungary) - demonstrate the application of the new methods in the paleoecological investigation. The fossil peat profile from "Nagy Mohos" peat bog provided the history of the site from the Upper Pleniglacial to the mid-Holocene period. During the Upper Pleniglacial and Late Glacial brown moss, floating moss and Sphagnum moss associations followed each other by turns. Climatic improvement during the Holocene resulted in enhanced peat growth. The lack of Late Holocene layers implies historical peat cut, but timing of this event is uncertain. Removal of the upper peat layers led to formation of a shallow pond, which shortly after, turned to raised bog again. Digging up of channels in the 19th century caused the disappearance of boreal and hydatophilous moss species. A possible implication of these results for conservation management is that careful excavation of the superficial peat could be beneficial for the survival of the mire communities. Báb-tava raised bog developed in a former oxbow lake. Recent raised bog associations (Eriophoro vaginati - Sphagnetum) developed from a floating sedge mat (Cicuto - Caricetum pseudocyperi), are quite young and could not be considered as climatic relics.